existence of astronomical Shahriyar Tables and observatories, later emulated by
Muslim astrologers and astronomers, prove the importance of astronomy in Iran
during the Sassanid Dynasty, Cais-Soas reported.
books written in Pahlavi languages, one encounters references to scientific
subjects such as natural science, mathematics and astronomy.
medical and veterinary essays, prescriptions and expressions mentioned in
“Dinkart” (from the Sassanid period) are very interesting.
medical books later translated into Arabic were initially compiled in the
Syrian or Pahlavi languages by Iranian scholars.
such books are books on veterinary, agriculture, diseases and treatment of
gab-birds, training and education of children.
in Sassanid Era
the mid-Sassanid era, a strong wave of knowledge came to Iran from the west in
the form of views and traditions of Greece which, following the spread of
Christianity, accompanied Syriac, the official language of Christians as well
as the Iranian Nestorian script.
Christian schools in Iran have produced great scientists such as Nersi, Farhad
and Marabai. Also, a book is attributed to Paulus Persa, the head of the
Iranian Department of Logic and Philosophy of Aristotle, written in Syriac and
dictated to Sassanid King Anushiravan.
great teachers have emerged from similar theological and scientific schools,
including Ibrahim Madi, Hibai, Marbab Jondishapouri and Paulus of Karkhe
Jondishapour was a town located east of Susa, southeast of Dezful and northwest
the Sassanid period, Jondishapour became a center of medical science and its
fame lasted for several centuries even after the advent of Islam in Iran.
fortunate incident for pre-Islamic Iranian science during the Sassanid period
was the arrival of eight eminent scholars from Greece who sought refuge in Iran
from the persecution of Roman Emperor Justinian.
men were the followers of neoplatonic school. King Anushiravan had many
discussions with these men, especially with the one named Priscianus.
summary of these discussions was compiled in a book entitled “Solution to the
Problems of Khosrow, the King of Persia,” which is now in the Saint Germain
Library of Paris.
discussions touched on several subjects, such as philosophy, physiology,
metabolisms, natural science and astronomy.
of Islamic Period
the establishment of Umayyad and Abbasid states, many Iranian scholars were
sent to the capitals of these Muslim dynasties.
philosophy of the Islamic period was influenced by Greece, India and apparently
Iran in the pre-Islamic period.
Khorram writes in his book “Al Melal Val Nehal” that Muhammad bin Zakaria Razi
took from ancient Iran’s five principles.
same is mentioned by Masoudi in his book “Morouj Az-Zahab.” Shahabeddin
Sohrevardi in the preface of his philosophical book quotes Zoroastrian, Manian
and Zarvanian terms and expressions.
Abbasid rulers paid special attention to science, which reached its peak at the
end of the 4th and beginning of 5th century AH (after hegira) but declined
under the Turkmen and Mongol invasions.
great Iranian translators who knew Syriac, Greek and Pahlavi languages, and
translated many scientific books into Arabic were Al-Bakhtyasu, Al-Nowbakht,
Omar Ibn Farakhan Tabari, Ali Ibn Ziad Tamimi, Ibn Sahl, Yusef Al-Naqel, Isa
Ibn Chaharbakht, Yatr Ibn Rostam Al-Kouhi and the latest was Abu Reyhan
Birouni, the mathematician and famous translator of Indian books.
a result of their efforts, the knowledge and science of India, Greece and
Alexandria were narrated in Arabic and helped form the biggest scientific
treasury of the Middle Ages.
most ancient mathematicians and writers among the Muslims were two Iranians:
Nowbakht Ahvazi and Ibrahim Ibn Habib-ol-Fazari(8th century AD), and the latter
also translated into Arabic a collection of Indian astronomy books.
of the greatest mathematicians of ancient times who appeared at the end of the
2nd century AH was an Iranian named Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Kharazmi whose work
influenced the Islamic and European culture after 12th century AD.
great mathematician, in addition to compiling a table of figures named
Algorithm or Algorism (now known as Logarithm), also developed Algebra and
revived the Iranian and Indian arithmetic system used before him.
work on Algebra was translated into Latin by the great Latin translator
was developed by well-known scientists such as Abu Abbas Fazl Hatam, Abu Musa,
Farahani, Omar Ibn Farakhan and Abu Zeid Ahmad Ibn Soheil Balkhi (9th century
medicine, Mansour Davaneqi, the founder of Baghdad, invited scholars from
Jondishapour to that city.
them was a Nestorian Christian named Jurjis Ibn Jebreel Ibn Bakhtyasu who wrote
a detailed book on medicine, which contained all subjects on medical science
known at the time.
who migrated to Baghdad also had publications of their own. The first Muslim
who wrote on medicine was also another Iranian, Ali Ibn Rabn Tabari, who
compiled medical knowledge from Greece, India and Iran.
him came Abu Bakr Muhammad Bin Zakaria Razi who in the 10th century AD wrote a
number of detailed as well as short books on medicine.
books were translated into Latin and printed several times. In addition to
compiling subjects from ancient books, Razi fully relied on his own
of his distinguished students was Abu Bakr Joveini who wrote a comprehensive
medical book in Persian and this is the first book on medicine in the Persian
language and one of the oldest literary works in this language.
third important writer on medicine was Ali Ibn Abbas Majussi Ahvazi, the
physician in the court of Azed-od-Dowleh Daylami, whose works were also
translated into Latin and reprinted several times.
books were considered the best and most complete works on medicine prior to the
appearance of Avicenna in 11th century AD.
wrote many books and papers on various scientific subjects. His book ‘Qanoun’
(Laws) on medicine was for many centuries used as a textbook by European scientists.
physicians have appeared since Avicenna, bur none gained the prominence of
Zein-ol-Abedin Esmail Jorjani.
book is even more complete than ‘Qanoun’ and is considered the greatest medical
book written in Persian.
were also proficient in other natural sciences such as botany, pharmacology,
chemistry, zoology and mineralogy.
most famous scientists in these fields were Muhammad Bin Zakaria Razi and Abu
Reyhan Birouni who also made discoveries.
and sulfuric acid were discovered by Razi and Abu Reyhan Birouni calculated the
gravity of many substances in a very precise manner.
the year of 1000 AD, Birouni wrote an astronomical encyclopedia that discusses
the possibility that the earth might rotate around the sun long before Tycho
Braheand drew the first map of the sky, also using stylized animals to depict
Ibn Hayyan, the famous Iranian chemist who died in 804 at Tous in Khorasan,
made a number of important discoveries that were recorded in an encyclopedia
and numerous treaties covering 2,000 works that became the bible of European
chemists in the 18th century, particularly Lavoisier.
works led to the following uses: tinctures and their applications in tanning
and textiles, distillations of plants and flowers, the origin of perfumes,
gunpowder and a powerful instrument of military superiority that Islam
possessed long before the West.
IBNA News Agency