practical experience gained at the well-known Muqtadari Hospital helped him in
his chosen profession of medicine, IranChamber reported.
in the West as Rhazes, he studied in Baghdad, Palestine, Egypt and Spain.
an early age, he gained eminence as an expert in medicine and alchemy, such
that patients and students flocked to him from distant parts of Asia.
was first made in-charge of the first Royal Hospital at Rey, from where he soon
moved to a similar position in Baghdad where he remained the head of its famous
Muqtadari Hospital for along time.
traveled to various cities, especially between Rey and Baghdad, but finally
returned to Rey, where he died around 930 A.D. The vaccine institute near
Tehran has been named after Razi.
was a physician, alchemist and philosopher. In medicine, his significant
contribution can only be compared to that of Ibn Sina or Avicenna.
of his works on medicine, e.g. Kitab Al-Mansoori, Al-Hawi, Kitab Al-Mulooki and
Kitab Al-Jadari wa Al-Hasabah, earned him everlasting fame.
Al-Mansoori, which was translated into Latin in the 15th century AD, comprised
ten volumes and dealt exhaustively with Greco-Arab medicine.
of its volumes were published separately in Europe. His Al-Jadari wa Al-Hasabah
was the first treatise that drew clear comparisons between smallpox and
chickenpox, and is largely based on Razi’s original contribution. It was
translated into various European languages.
was the largest medical encyclopedia composed. On each medical subject, it
contained important information from Greek and Arab sources.
special feature of his medical system was that he greatly favored treating
diseases through correct and regulated food. This was combined with his
emphasis on the influence of psychological factors on health.
also tried remedies first on animals to evaluate their effects and
side-effects. He was an expert surgeon and the first to use opium for
addition to being a physician, he compounded medicines and, in his later years,
embraced experimental and theoretical sciences. It seems possible that he
developed his chemistry independently of Jabir ibn Hayyan.
has presented in great detail several chemical reactions and also given full
descriptions of and designs for about 20 instruments used in chemical
description of chemical knowledge is in plain and plausible language. One of
his books called Kitab Al-Asrar deals with the preparation of chemicals and
one was translated into Latin under the name Liber Experimentorum. He went
beyond his predecessors in dividing substances into plants, animals and minerals,
thus in a way opening the way for inorganic and organic chemistry.
and large, this classification of the three kingdoms still holds. As a chemist,
he was the first to produce sulfuric acid with some other acids and he also
prepared alcohol by fermenting sweet products.
contribution as a philosopher is also well known. The basic elements in his
philosophical system are the creator, spirit, matter, space and time. Razi
discusses their characteristics in detail and his concepts of space and time as
constituting a continuum are outstanding.
philosophical views were, however, criticized by a number of other scholars of
the era. He was a prolific author who has left monumental treatises on numerous
has more than 200 outstanding scientific contributions to his credit, out of
which about half deal with medicine and 21 concern alchemy.
philosopher also wrote on physics, mathematics, astronomy and optics, but these
writings could not be preserved.
number of his books such as Jami-fil-Tib, Kitab Al-Mansoori and Al-Hawi have
also been published in various European languages.
40 of his manuscripts are still extant in the museums and libraries of Iran,
France, Britain and India.
contribution has greatly influenced the development of science, in general, and
medicine, in particular.
commemorates his birth anniversary on Aug. 27 as Pharmacy Day.
IBNA News Agency